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Petroleum Refining Within the United States

Propylene Oxide EquipmentPetroleum refining in the United States in 2013 produced 18.9 million barrels per day of refined petroleum products, greater than another country.[2] Though the US was the world’s largest web importer of refined petroleum merchandise as recently as 2008, the US grew to become a net exporter in 2010, and in 2014 was the biggest exporter and the most important web exporter of refined petroleum.[Three] As of January 2015, there were 137 operating refineries within the US, distributed amongst 30 states.

Largest petroleum refining companies in the United States
Largest petroleum refineries within the United States

1 Historical past
2 Geography
three Merchandise 3.1 Byproduct sulfur
The first identified US petroleum refiner was Samuel Kier of Pittsburgh, who within the 1850s produced an illuminating oil for miners’ lamps.

American petroleum refining largely grew out of oil shale refining. When the Drake Nicely started producing in 1859, the oil shale business was growing rapidly, and establishing refineries close to cannel coal deposits along the Ohio River Valley. As oil manufacturing increased, the oil shale refiners discovered that their refining process worked simply as well with petroleum, and that petroleum was a cheaper uncooked material than shale oil. In 1861, the present oil shale refiners switched to petroleum feedstock, and the oil shale mines shut down.

In the 1800s, the principal refined product was kerosene for illuminating oil. The heaviest fraction was used as lubricating oil. A market developed for fuel oil because it was discovered that petroleum was superior to coal in powering the big engines of ships and railroad locomotives.

The popularity of the automobile within the early 1900s created a mass marketplace for gasoline, and a scarcity soon developed of the lighter gasoline fractions of crude oil. The scarcity was solved by the invention of the catalytic cracker, which broke lengthy hydrocarbon chains into smaller molecules.

Most giant refineries are near navigable waterways, especially seaports or Nice Lakes ports. The one largest concentration of refineries is along the Gulf Coast.[Eleven] Although there are refineries in 30 states, just three states dominate US refining: Texas (forty seven operating refineries), Louisiana (19), and California (18). As of January 2015, these three states include forty five% of all US refineries and fifty nine% of all US refining capacity.[12]

The three largest-volume merchandise of US refineries are gasoline, gasoline oil (including diesel fuel and residence heating oil), and aviation fuel, which collectively make up more than eighty four p.c of output.[Thirteen]

Byproduct sulfur[edit]
Petroleum refineries recover elemental sulfur as a byproduct. In 2012, US oil refineries recovered 7.Four million metric tons of sulfur, price about $915 million, and amounting to 88% of the elemental sulfur produced within the US.[14]

International trade[edit]
The United States was for decades, via 2008, the world’s largest web importer of refined petroleum merchandise. However the state of affairs shortly changed in 2008 as American refineries grew to become far more cost-aggressive due to giant will increase in US petrochemical companies sarnia production of oil, pure gas, and pure gas liquids. The US turned a internet exporter of refined petroleum in 2010, and since 2013 has been the world’s largest web exporter of refined petroleum. petrochemical companies sarnia In 2014, the US exported three.83 million barrels per day and imported 1.35 million barrels per day of refined petroleum, for net exports of two.Forty eight million barrels per day.[15]

The aggressive advantage of US refiners has been attributed to the decrease worth petrochemical companies sarnia of American crude oil, as mirrored by the Oklahoma-primarily based index worth West Texas Intermediate, versus the dearer European-primarily based index price Brent Crude. On account of the good surge in American production of oil, natural gasoline, and natural fuel liquids since 2008, those merchandise have been cheaper within the North American market than worldwide, giving American refiners a serious cost benefit.[16] The low cost on US crude is partially attributed to the lengthy-standing federal ban on exports of American crude oil.[17]

European Union refiners have been onerous-hit by the growth in US exports. They lost a lot of their earlier gasoline exports to the US, and likewise market share in the worldwide market to the newly competitive US refineries. In addition, US refineries have increasingly exported petroleum merchandise to the EU. In 2008, US exports of gas oil (house heating gas) surged to a 31% market share within the EU, up from 5% the earlier yr; in 2011, US imports held a 37% market share of gasoil within the EU.[18] There has been dialogue that EU refineries must shut down with out authorities intervention. [19]

^ “U.S. Vitality Information Administration: Top 10 U.S. Refineries Operable Capacity”. Retrieved 2015-01-26.
^ OPEC, Statistical Bulletin, 2014
^ OPEC, Annual Statistical Bulletin, 2015.
^ “Tesoro Closes Western Refining Merger, To Be Named Andeavor”. 2017-06-05. Retrieved 2017-08-20.
^ a b c report, Advocate staff. “Shell assumes ownership of Norco, Convent refineries in Motiva deal with Saudi Aramco”. The Advocate. Retrieved 2017-06-04.
^ “PBF Power Completes Acquisition of the Torrance Refinery and Related Logistics Property”. Retrieved 2016-eleven-30.
^ “Island Power finalizes deal for Chevron Hawaii refinery, downstream assets”. Retrieved 2016-eleven-30.
^ “Tesoro Closes Western Refining Merger, To Be Named Andeavor”. 2017-06-05. Retrieved 2017-08-20.
^ US Energy Info Administration, Desk 5, 2015.
^ US Energy Info Administration, Desk 5, 2015.
^ US Power Info Administration, A lot of the country’s refinery capability is concentrated alongside the Gulf Coast, 19 July, 2012.
^ US Vitality Data Administration, Refining capacity by state.
^ US Vitality Data Administration, Refinery Yield accessed 26 July 2015.
^ Lori E. Apodaca, Sulfur, US Geological Survey, 2012 Minerals Yearbook, Feb. 2015.
^ OPEC, Data Obtain, Tables 5.Four and 5.7, 2014.
^ Nicolas Sakelaris, “How the shale increase translates into big income for US refineries,” Dallas Enterprise Journal, 5 June 2014.
^ Ed Crooks, “US oil refiners face battle to prolong halcyon days,” Monetary Times, 17 Aug. 2014.
^ Chris Beddoes, “Competitiveness of European refining,” sixth Oil Discussion board of the Vitality Community, 30 Sept. 2014.
^ Tara Patel, “French refineries at risk as demand weakens, trade foyer says,” Bloomberg, 10 Mar.

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