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GCSE Bitesize: Distillation

Crude oil is a fossil gas that may be separated into many various merchandise referred to as fractions. When fuels burn, they react with oxygen within international petroleum week the air, but when there is not sufficient air this can lead to ‘incomplete combustion’ which outcomes within the manufacturing of a toxic gas called carbon monoxide. Alternatives to fossil fuels embrace biofuels (eg vegetable oils) and hydrogen.

Distillation is a process that can be used to separate a pure liquid from a mixture of liquids. It works when international petroleum week the liquids have totally different boiling factors. Distillation is usually used to separate ethanol – the alcohol in alcoholic drinks – from water.

Distillation process to separate ethanol from water
Step 1 – water and ethanol solution are heated

The mixture is heated in a flask. Ethanol has a lower international petroleum week boiling point than water so it evaporates first. The ethanol vapour is then cooled and condensed inside the condenser to kind a pure liquid. The thermometer exhibits the boiling level of the pure ethanol liquid. When all of the ethanol has evaporated from the solution, the temperature rises and the water evaporates.